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Types of Thyroid Diseases

There are several types of thyroid disease, including:



Hypothyroidism a condition in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough hormones. The most common type of thyroid disease and occurs when the thyroid does not produce enough hormones. Symptoms may include fatigue, weight gain, dry skin, constipation, depression or anxiety, and muscle aches or stiffness. Treatment typically involves taking daily synthetic hormone medication to replace what your body is not producing. This treatment can help reduce your symptoms and improve your quality of life.



Hyperthyroidism is a condition where your thyroid is overactive and produces too many hormones. Symptoms may include heart palpitations or racing heartbeat, heat intolerance, sudden weight loss despite an increase in appetite, difficulty sleeping or insomnia, irritability or nervousness, hand tremors and frequent bowel movements. Treatment options vary depending on the severity of your condition but may include anti-thyroid medications to decrease hormone production or radioactive iodine therapy to destroy part or all of your thyroid gland. Surgery may also be recommended in some cases to remove part or all of your thyroid gland if other treatments aren’t working properly for you.



A goitre is an enlargement of the thyroid gland, which can be caused by a variety of factors, including iodine deficiency, autoimmune disorders, and certain medications.



This is a condition where the thyroid gland becomes inflammed which can be caused by viral or bacterial infections, autoimmune disorders, or certain medications. It can lead to a painful swelling in the neck area along with general fatigue and weight gain. It may also cause temporary hyperthyroidism before it progresses into hypothyroidism due to destruction of the cells within the gland itself. Treatment often includes medications such as steroids to reduce inflammation and synthetic hormones to replace what your body isn’t producing naturally due to destruction from the virus itself. An example of this condition is known as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis


Thyroid nodules

These are lumps or growths that develop within the thyroid gland, which can be benign or cancerous.


Thyroid cancer

Thyroid cancers are a rare type of cancer that develops in the thyroid gland, which can be treated with surgery, radioactive iodine, and/or very rarely chemotherapy.